As students of ninth grade, we are writing this essay to tell and remember the history and the origin of the first world peacekeeping military force known as NATO and their development as an organization and respected alliance to date.
The NATO flag
NATO (or North Atlantic Treaty Organization ) is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 states located in the North American and European regions, they are:
1. Belgium (1949), 16. Spain (1982),
2. Canada (1949), 17.Czech Republic (1999),
3. Denmark (1949), 18. Hungary (1999),
4. France (1949), 19. Poland (1999),
5. Iceland (1949), 20. Bulgaria (2004),
6. Italy (1949), 21. Estonia (2004),
7. Luxembourg (1949), 22. Latvia (2004),
8. The Netherlands (1949), 23. Lithuania (2004),
9. Norway (1949), 24. Romania (2004),
10. Portugal (1949), 25. Slovakia (2004),
11. United Kingdom (1949), 26. Slovenia (2004),
12. United States (1949), 27. Albania (2004),
13. Greece (1952), 28. Croatia (2004) and,
14. Turkey (1952), 29. Montenegro (2004).
15. Germany (1955),
• The organization implements that the North Atlantic Treaty was signed on April 4, 1949.
The North Atlantic Treaty
NATO constitutes a system of collective defense whereby its independent member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party. NATO’s headquarters are located in Brussels, Belgium, while the headquarters of Allied Command Operations is near Mons, Belgium.
NATO’s headquarters in Brussels (Belgium)
Intervention in Kosovo
Hoping to stop the war effort by order of Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic against separatists of the Kosovo Liberation Army, the United Nations Security Council adopted resolution 1199 on September 23rd, 1998 to demand a ceasefire. Negotiations between US Special Envoy Richard Holbrooke were interrupted on March 23rd, 1999, and he handed the case over to NATO, after which started the bombing on 24th of March 1999, and lasted 78 days.
The Allied Task Force targeted the military capabilities of the then Yugoslav Republic. During these crises, NATO decided to deploy one of the international response forces, ACE Mobile Forces, to Albania as the Albanian Forces (AFOR), to send and provide humanitarian aid to Kosovo refugees.
Although the campaigns were criticized about many civilian victims, including the bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade, Milosevic finally accepted the terms of an international peace plan, on June 3rd, 1999, ending the war on Kosovo.
However, the main purpose of this powerful organization and alliance at all times was to provide employment, protection and, most of all, independence for all its member states. While 21 additional countries are still participating in NATO’s Partnership for Peace program, 15 are also involved in institutionalized dialogue programs. The combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the global total. Members have committed to reach or maintain defense spending of at least 2% of GDP (Gross Domestic Product) by 2024.
(Made by: Merlinda Alimi & Arjeta Gashi, IX-7)
Mentor: Teuta Haskaj Vojnika